“Nano-scale Applications in Aquaculture: Opportunities for Improved Production and Disease Control”
Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food-production sector and is vital to food security, habitat restoration and endangered species conservation. One of the continued challenges to the industry is our ability to manage aquatic disease agents that can rapidly decimate operations and are a constant threat to sustainability. Such threats also evolve as microbes acquire resistance and/or new pathogens emerge. The advent of nanotechnology has transformed our approach to fisheries disease management with advances in water disinfection, food conversion, fish health and management systems. In this review, several nano-enabled technology successes will be discussed as they relate to the challenges associated with disease management in the aquaculture sector, with a particular focus on fishes. Future perspectives on how nanotechnology can offer functional approaches for improving disinfection and innovating at the practical space of early warning systems will be discussed. Finally, the importance of “safety by design” approaches to the development of novel commercial nano-enabled products will be emphasized.